It was first built in during the Liao Dynasty and was reconstructed as well as enlarged under the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. Niujie in Xicheng District, where the mosque is located, is the largest area inhabited by Muslims in Beijing, the Niujie Mosque covers an area of approximately 10, square meters. The mosque reflects a mixture of Islamic and Han Chinese cultural and architectural influences, from the outside, its architecture shows traditional Chinese influence and the inside has blend of Islamic calligraphy and Chinese design. The main prayer hall is square meters in area, and can more than 1, worshipers. The mosque, built out of timber, is home to important cultural relics. The Niujie Mosque, the largest of all the mosques in Beijing, was first built in during the Liao Dynasty, the local Muslim community constructed the mosque using traditional Chinese architecture, with the exception that it displays Arabic calligraphy in the interior. It was originally designed by Nazaruddin, the son of an imam, after it was destroyed by armies of Genghis Khan in , the Mosque was rebuilt in in the Ming Dynasty. Muslim eunuchs contributed money in to repairing Niujie Mosque and it was significantly expanded in under the Qing Dynasty. The mosque has undergone three renovations since the founding of the Peoples Republic of China in , respectively in , and

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Russian language, romance, beauty, passion, family, love, style, warmth and of course feminity Ukrainian women have always been considered beautiful and also intelligent, warm, welcoming, family-oriented, feminine, romantic, and simply superb. Every year, thousands of men from Quebec and other countries go to Ukraine to meet beautiful Slavic women who are looking for a serious relationship.

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All comfortable class accommodation with private facilities in cities, Guest houses, Home stays and Yurt in the remote areas with basic sharing facilities Guides: Fully escorted by our English speaking guides in each country Tour starting point: Daily- Minimum 2 people required Itinerary Day by day itinerary Day Ashgabat Turkmenistan On arrival at Ashgabat international airport you will be met by our guide and transfer to your hotel, afternoon city tour of Ashgabad, visit Tolkuchka bazaar.

Overnight in Grand Hotel D Day Mary Morning flight to Mary, Later sightseeing of Mary visit the ancient ruins of Merv which came under Persian, Greek, Sassanian and Moslem rule and from the 11th century was the capital of the Seljuk Turks, who controlled an empire stretching from Afghanistan to Egypt.

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In the second and first centuries B. Beginning and development of feudal relations sixth through the 18th century. In the fourth and fifth centuries water-raising techniques came into use in the farming regions of southern Kirghizia, irrigation ditches were deepened and widened, water mills were built, and new agricultural crops such as cotton were sown for the first time.

As a result of the changes in economic life and in social relations, the slaveholding states of the farming zones gave way to federations of feudal states, and early feudal states were formed among the nomadic tribes. In the fifth century the nomads of northern Kirghizia made the transition to settled farming. In the sixth and seventh centuries Kirghizia was the center of the West Turkic Kaganate, whose capital, the city of Suiab, was located in the Chu Valley near the city of Tokmak.

Migrants from other Middle Asian farming regions played some role in the development of permanent settlements in northern Kirghizia. The founding of cities and the social division of labor led to clearly manifested social and class differentiation, which in turn increased feudal exploitation, brought about the gradual enslavement of the free population, and caused the intensification of the class struggle.

The growth of the productive forces of a class society contributed to the development of a variety of cultural phenomena. In the sixth to eighth centuries the nomadic Turkic tribes used Orkhon-Enisei writing, whereas the settled population used Sogdian writing.

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The Oxford English Dictionary defines “avunculate” as follows: The special relationship existing in some societies between a maternal uncle and his sister’s son; maternal uncles regarded as a collective body. When a woman’s son lives near her brother, he is able to more easily learn how he needs to behave in the matrilineal role he has inherited. In the Kyrgyz past a nephew, at a feast at his maternal uncle or grandfather, could take any horse from their herd or any delicacy.

Modern day influences have somewhat but not completely erased this tradition.

Kyrgyz in China Population by ethnicity Makan Map Official site Uqturpan County – Uqturpan County or Uchturpan County is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region under the administration of Aksu Prefecture.

With a history estimated to stretch back years, Osh has long been a central city in the Fergana Valley. Osh has also been historically significant in many different eras, from being home to a large bazaar to being the birthplace of Kurmanjan Datka. Legends say that the city was founded by Solomon, or maybe Alexander the Great. No matter what the legends say, Osh has been a crucial point for merchants and traders for millennia. The bazaar, located along the Ak-Bura River, has been in its same location for many centuries.

In medieval times, Osh was an important trading city. Nomads would come from the mountains to sell livestock, and merchants would come from Asia and Europe with caravans of goods. In , Osh became part of the Khanate of Kokand, and was one of the six main trading centers in the khanate. In , the Khanate of Kokand was annexed to the Russian Empire. Kurmanjan Datka, ruler of the Alai region, near Osh, stayed independent for a while longer, but in , she led a peaceful transition to Russian power.

The story of her life was adapted for a film, and she has been honored with statues around Kyrgyzstan including one in Osh. Osh expanded under Russian rule, with European-style houses being built. When borders were drawn to create the modern republics, Osh ended up in southern Kyrgyzstan, near the border with Uzbekistan.


Kazakh is a Turkic language written in Cyrillic script with many special letters but in Roman script in China since The Kazakhs, a distinct ethnic group originating with Turkic and Mongol settlers who arrived there in late antiquity first century bc , are the dominant group in the population and are primarily Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school. Islam had been adopted by the Kazakhs as early as , but many of its popular religious practices did not become common until the late 18th century.

There is also a small Jewish community. The constitution provides for freedom of religion, but there are some restrictions placed on nontraditional religious groups. All groups must register with the government to obtain legal status and conduct business transactions.

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The Kyrgyz Republic is a land-locked country with mountainous terrain, bordered by Kazakhstan to the North, Uzbekistan to the to the West and South-west, Tajikstan to the South-west and China to the East. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. A Brief History of evolution of Kyrgyzstan: The Scythians were the early settlers in present day Kyrgyzstan. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain, which helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the cross-roads of several great civilisations as a part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes.

It has long been inhabited by several independent tribes and clans and more recently was a part of the Soviet Union. The name “Kyrgyz” is derived from the Turkic word for “forty”, in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero, who united the forty regional clans against the Uighurs who dominated much of Central Asia including Kyrgyzstan , Mongolia and parts of Russia and China.

The Kyrgyz Flag has forty rays, symbolising the 40 clans and the geographical element in the Sun’s centre depicts the wooden crown called “Tunduk” of a Yurt – a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. From the 10th Century AD, the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan Range and maintained their dominance here for about two centuries. Meanwhile, Issyk-Kul Lake in the North-eastern Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Lake Titicaca, and was a stop-over on the Silk Road, a land route for traders, merchants and other travellers from the Far East to Europe.

In , the territories formally became a part of the Russian Empire. The Russian takeover was met with numerous uprisings against Tsarist authority and many Kyrgyz moved to the Pamir mountains and Afghanistan. By , several more Kyrgyz had migrated to China rather than accept Russian domination.

Kyrgyz in China

The island served as an Arab port before Vasco da Gama visited in and finally the Portuguese established a port and naval base here. The chapel of Nossa Senhora de Baluarte built in is considered to be the oldest non-indigenous building in the southern hemisphere. The island was Mozambique’s first capital.

The fascinating mix of African, Arab and European culture and history is displayed in the churches and mosques, beautiful colonial buildings with thick walls and small traditional houses, the imposing fort, the old Portuguese houses some dating back to the sixteenth century , the well-maintained, interesting museums and above all in the local population, their culture and their incredibly varied faces.

There is a colourful and vibrant feel to the island with all the hustle and bustle; yet you can still feel the charm, sophistication and culture. More and more guest houses and small boutique hotels are being opened in restored buildings, offering comfortable and charming accommodation at varied but not expensive prices.

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WIP A wedding in Kyrgyzstan is a huge celebration. For most girls it is an event they await from their birth. Parents spend a great amount of money preparing the dowry and the feast. However, there is one moment that can ruin not only the outcome of the event and the fate of the bride, but also tarnish the family honor – the display of the first night bed sheet. A great disgrace befalls a woman whose sheet remains clean.

Ironically, at the same time it is expected that the man should have had a sexual experience before the marriage, and it is a great shame for him to be a virgin at his wedding. These traditional views vividly display that women in Kyrgyzstan not only lack sexual rights, but are even stigmatized for their choices. Despite an authoritarian regime and strict censorship, the filmmakers showed the film.

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As the road through Irkeshtam is at high altitude, remember to take warm clothes to the bus even during summer. Sit on the left for better views. By car[ edit ] From Bishkek.

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